Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.


Water pollution is mainly caused by the following:

  • Disposal of untreated municipal liquid waste
  • Leaking of sewage lines
  • Industrial waste water


Water pollution affects adversely in the following ways:

  • Drinking water contamination
  • Pollution of water bodies e.g. rivers, canals, drains
  • Sub-soil water pollution
  • Loss of aquatic life
  • Crop damages
  • Heavy metals in food chain
  • Increased rate of waterborne diseases


Remedies to control water pollution are listed below:

  • Treatment plants for municipal and industrial effluents before disposal to water bodies
  • Adequate collection, recycling and disposal
  • Application of “Clean Technology” at the industrial units
  • Segregate sewage lines to avoid mixing with drinking water supply
  • Filter plants for clean drinking water

How to Conserve Water

Conservation of water must be focused to avoid water scarcity in future. Few useful tips in this regard are stated under:

  • Don’t pour water down the drain, instead use it to water your plants or garden
  • Fix dripping faucets, one drop per second wastes 2700 gallons of water per year
  • Take shorter showers and turn off the water while you lather up
  • Turn off the water while brushing your teeth or washing your face